Category Archives: Friend’s Posts

Posts Written by Guest Writers

07 Jun

XML to JSON converter in Siebel

Often we come across requirement for Siebel to integrate with external applications. Siebel provides various ways to integrate through EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) like EIM, Prebuilt connectors, various queues like MSMQ, JMS, WebSphere MQ. Also Web service based integration using SOAP. Siebel also supports RESTful based integration using Fusion Middleware.

One important feature of Siebel EAI is EAI Java Business Service which can be used to invoke external Java class to perform various operations.
In this article we will see how we can use various EAI Business services to communicate with JSON API of external application. We will have an XML input processed and resulted into a JSON output in Siebel.

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09 Oct

Bug / Defect Priority vs Severity Matrix

In Software Testing, deciding how important the defect is and how soon the defect should be fixed is as important as finding a defect! This depends on how you actually place the defect into Priority-Severity matrix.

I have come across a lot many test engineers, who get confused between priority and severity of a defect. Definition is important but understanding is even more important.

Definitly customer (guidelines) plays a major role in the decision but I’d like to convey in terms of the general scenario. I’d like to add some easy words to clarify the confusion (probably forever).

Defect Priority: Priority is something that is defined by business rules. It defines how important the defect is and how early it should be fixed.

Defect Severity: Severity is defined by the extent of damage done by the defect. It defines how badly the defect affects the functionality of the software product.

Again you’re fed with another definition? No!! Let’s take some examples…

They say a picture is better than a thousand words:


High Priority and Low Severity:

Company logo is half cut on the home page of its website. This is high priority defect because displaying an incomplete company logo would put bad impression on business as this would defame the company or website. So, this defect should be fixed as soon as possible.

As far as severity is concerned, this defect has got low severity because it is not impacting any functionality of the website.

High Priority and High Severity:

Login button is not clickable on the login page of a web application. This is a high priority defect because this is stopping users from using the site. So, this should be fixed at once.

At the same time, this defect is of high severity because none of the other functionalities can be carried out.

Low Priority and High Severity:

A twisted scenario which rarely occurs but makes the application crash is an example of a low priority defect because user doesn’t come across this scenario normally and can be fixed later.

On the other hand, it is having high severity because it makes the whole application break and no functionalities can be performed.

Low Priority and Low Severity:

Spelling mistake in any of the words on some inner pages of the website that is rarely accessed is an example of low priority defect because it doesn’t matter much to the users as business is not impacted and can be fixed later. It is also having low severity because it is not impacting any functionality of the website.

I hope this clears the defect attribution. comments and questions are welcome.

05 Jul

A User review-Apple IPhone-4: I

Techie nerds, geeks or even company reviews are quite interesting and have their importance but a “User Review” is something which you won’t like to ignore; you should not. IPhone-4 was a buzz word since it’s release and I decided to provide a user review for IPhone-4.

So here you go:
iPhone4, Worlds Thinnest Smart Phone. One of the finest product. Best Smart Phone ever shipped. and a lot promising stuff about it, said by Apple.

As an “End User” I agree that its really cool product with loads of features. Monetory wise, I have paid nice 200$ on it and would be paying extra 600$ over the period of 2years for data plan, in order to make this Smart Phone work as “Smart Phone”.

Like with all the smart phones available today, if you want smart phone you need to be dumb and pay extra bucks to your carrier to access Internet. If you don’t want data plan, they won’t sell you with contract!! Quite annoying, as there are bunch of apps available which doesn’t need Internet. Can’t I just use them on my “Smart Phone”?

Enough, I have started review with good amount of criticism. But I have bought iPhone 4 and I am only criticizing it, its just not good. I bought it means I does like it. My criticism is for my expectations from IPhone-4.

Now, Let me list down some great features:
Multi touch: WOW!!!! For the first time users, yeah it was a major break through with first generation iPhone. Now, many of smart phones have them. But yeah still its most important thing.

iPod: Great!!!! Awesome sound quality.. I don’t doubt Apple but I still have a question; Isn’t that sound quality due to its Super Cool head phones? And ultimate Apple allowed users to create a play list right from iPod s/w. I dont know, weather I should be happy for this or surprised they allowed it this late.

Apps: Hundreds of thousands of Apps available, ranging from Games, Productivity, Social Networking, Business and so on. And good news is there are lot of free apps. If you dont consider going through iTunes or to-be specific Apple App Store, Its wonderful!! They will really make your phone smart.

Retina display: Again, WOW!!!! Its really nice. You can really see the difference if you compare 3GS and 4. I have done this. My friends have iPhone3 so I got to compare them.

Front Facing Camera: Kinda cool. It would be much cooler once we have apps accessing front facing camera and we can use chat tools to make video calls/chat.

I hope I would get some app soon (hopefully Skype, I would be free from sitting in front of my laptop and sit at one place.)

Let me clarify, I am not an Apple fanboy. I own one, so actually I should be writing much of it, but unfortunately as I get to use it

more I have started finding much of “TOBE MADE” improvements in it. I want more in my IPhone-4. I wish Mr.Jobs read this blog and add some features in next release.

I have bunch of things to say about which will ofcourse make IPhone-4 more than a perfact 10. I would have one separate post for it quite soon. Also, a comparison with my sweet SonyEricssion W550i music phone. My love for it has

increased after I started using iPhone. I guess Sony Erricson missed the bus, other wise they had real good features in walkman series phone.

Some of the iPhone still don’t have.. Surprised?? I will list them. Stay tuned…

To end the present user-review I will rate my IPhone-4, 7.5 / 10. A good product but lil’ improvement required.

– Utkarsh Shah

26 Feb

QA-Testing Definitions-Interview Questions: Part-III

QA-Testing Definitions-Interview Questions: III (T – Z):

Race Condition:

A cause of concurrency problems. Multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderate simultaneous access.

Ramp Testing:

Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.

Recovery Testing:

Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Regression Testing:

Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.

Release Candidate:

A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).

Sanity Testing:

Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if its basically operational.

Scalability Testing:

Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load.

Security Testing:

Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.

Smoke Testing:

A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.

Soak Testing:

Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.

Software Requirements Specification:

A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for software/

Software Testing:

A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.

Static Analysis:

Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

Static Analyzer:

A tool that carries out static analysis.

Static Testing:

Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

Storage Testing:

Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.

Stress Testing:

Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load.

Structural Testing:

Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software.

System Testing:

Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components.


The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.



• The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors.
• The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item (Ref. IEEE Std 829).
• The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.

Test Automation:

Read Automated Testing.

Test Bed:

An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerate the test beds(s) to be used.

Test Case:

• Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc.• A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

Test Driven Development:

Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.

Test Driver:

A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.

Test Environment:

The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.

Test First Design:

Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.

Test Harness:

A program or test tool used to execute a test. Also known as a Test Driver.

Test Plan:

A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning. Ref IEEE Std 829.

Test Procedure:

A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.

Test Scenario:

Definition of a set of test cases or test scripts and the sequence in which they are to be executed.

Test Script:

Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.

Test Specification:

A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.

Test Suite:

A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.

Test Tools:

Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.

Thread Testing:

A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

Top Down Testing:

An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.

Total Quality Management:

A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction.

Traceability Matrix:

A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.

Usability Testing:

Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.

Use Case:

The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.

User Acceptance Testing:

A formal product evaluation performed by a customer as a condition of purchase.

Unit Testing:

Testing of individual software components.


The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing.


The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing.

Volume Testing:

Testing which confirms that any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files), can be accommodated by the program and will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation in any manner.


A review of requirements, designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.

White Box Testing:

Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing and Glass Box Testing. Contrast with Black Box Testing.

Workflow Testing:

Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user.

26 Feb

QA-Testing Definitions-Interview Questions: Part-II

QA-Testing Definitions-Interview Questions: II (F – S):

Data Dictionary:

A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.

Data Flow Diagram:

A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.

Data Driven Testing:

Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.


The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.


Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification

Dependency Testing:

Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.

Depth Testing:

A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.

Dynamic Testing:

Testing software through executing it.


A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.

Endurance Testing:

Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

End-to-End testing:

Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

Equivalence Class:

A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.

Equivalence Partitioning:

A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.

Exhaustive Testing:

Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.

Functional Decomposition:

A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.

Functional Specification:

A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.

Functional Testing:

• Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications.
• Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.


Glass Box Testing:

A synonym for White Box Testing.

Gorilla Testing:

Testing one particular module,functionality heavily.

Gray Box Testing:

A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies:

testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.

High Order Tests:

Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.

Independent Test Group (ITG):

A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing,


A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).

Integration Testing:

Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

Installation Testing:

Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Load Testing:

Read Performance Testing.

Localization Testing:

This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.

Loop Testing:

A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.


A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.

Monkey Testing:

Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.

Mutation Testing:

Testing done on the application where bugs are purposely added to it.

Negative Testing:

Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”.

N+1 Testing:

A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in test cycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are no errors.

Path Testing:

Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.

Performance Testing:

Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as “Load Testing”.

Positive Testing:

Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”.

Quality Assurance:

All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

Quality Audit:

A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

Quality Circle:

A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.

Quality Control:

The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.

Quality Management:

That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.

Quality Policy:

The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.

Quality System:

The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.

-- Kedar Vaijanapurkar --