QA-Testing Definitions-Interview Questions: Part-II

QA-Testing Definitions-Interview Questions: II (F – S):

Data Dictionary:

A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.

Data Flow Diagram:

A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.

Data Driven Testing:

Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.


The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.


Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification

Dependency Testing:

Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.

Depth Testing:

A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.

Dynamic Testing:

Testing software through executing it.


A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.

Endurance Testing:

Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

End-to-End testing:

Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

Equivalence Class:

A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.

Equivalence Partitioning:

A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.

Exhaustive Testing:

Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.

Functional Decomposition:

A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.

Functional Specification:

A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.

Functional Testing:

• Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications.
• Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.


Glass Box Testing:

A synonym for White Box Testing.

Gorilla Testing:

Testing one particular module,functionality heavily.

Gray Box Testing:

A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies:

testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.

High Order Tests:

Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.

Independent Test Group (ITG):

A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing,


A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).

Integration Testing:

Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

Installation Testing:

Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Load Testing:

Read Performance Testing.

Localization Testing:

This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.

Loop Testing:

A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.


A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.

Monkey Testing:

Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.

Mutation Testing:

Testing done on the application where bugs are purposely added to it.

Negative Testing:

Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”.

N+1 Testing:

A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in test cycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are no errors.

Path Testing:

Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.

Performance Testing:

Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as “Load Testing”.

Positive Testing:

Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”.

Quality Assurance:

All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

Quality Audit:

A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

Quality Circle:

A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.

Quality Control:

The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.

Quality Management:

That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.

Quality Policy:

The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.

Quality System:

The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.

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